Thomas C. Hall
7104 Bellrose Aveneu, NE
Olympia, WA 98502
For additional information click Magpies
Fig. 1. North American magpies; (a)Black-billed magpie Pica pica; (b) Yellow-billed magpie, P.nuttalli
I thank Mike Dorrance (Alberta Agric., Edmonton), Michael Pitzler (USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services, Washington), Edward Shafer (USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services, Denver Wildlife Research Center), and the authors of the articles used to gather the information. I would also like to thank the reviewers for their comments, especially Alan Foster (USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services, Colorado) who provided a detailed review of this article.
Figure 1 by the author.
Figures 3 and 5 courtesy of US Dep. Agric.
Figure 4 courtesy of Alberta Agric.
For Additional Information
Alberta Agriculture. 1983. An improved magpie trap. Alberta Agric. Print Media Branch. Agdex 685-3. 3 pp.
Bent, A. C. 1964. Life histories of North American jays, crows and titmice. Dover Pub., Inc., New York. 495 pp.
Birkhead, T. R. 1991. The magpie: the ecology and behavior of black-billed and yellow-billed magpies. Poyser Popular Bird Books, Academy Press. 300 pp.
Kalmbach, E. R. 1927. The magpie in relation to agriculture. US Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull. 24. Washington DC. 29 pp.
Kalmbach, E. R. 1944. Local control of magpies through destroying nests and roosts and through trapping. US Fish Wildl. Serv. Wildl. Leaflet 252. 4 pp.
Linsdale, J. M. 1937. The natural history of magpies. Pacific Coast Avifauna No. 25. Cooper Ornith. Club Publ., Calif. 234 pp.
McAtee, W. L. 1933. Protecting poultry from predacious birds. US Dep. Agric. Leaflet 96. 6 pp.
Scott E. Hygnstrom;
Robert M. Timm;
Gary E. Larson
PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF WILDLIFE DAMAGE — 1994
Cooperative Extension Division Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Nebraska -Lincoln
United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Damage Control
Great Plains Agricultural Council Wildlife Committee